Kashgar Prefecture, 141,600 kilometers in total area, lies between latitude 35°0' to 40°8' north and longitude 73°0' to 79°7' east in the southern part of Xinjiang. The city of Kashgar, a place of strategic importance in south Xinjiang, has an area of 15 square kilometers with an average elevation of 1289.5 meters. The city is located between latitude 39°5' to 29°5' north and longitude 75°6' to 76°4' east and lies 1,473 kilometers from the city of Urumqi.

Located in the plain climate zone with the clear four seasons, Kashgar has a long summer and a short winter. The annual mean temperature in Kashgar is 11.7 ºC, with the lowest temperature of -24.4 ºC in January and the hottest 40.1ºC in July. The frost-free period averages 215 days.

Kashgar was called Shule in ancient times and has a history of more than two thousand years. According to the record of the Persian Epic, Afulabuseyav, an ancient Tulan hero, established the capital of his kingdom here. In the beginning of the Han Dynasty, it belonged to the Zhuangpu Prefecture General's Office of the Hun. In the latter half of the second century B.C., after the Han Dynasty Emperor Wudi sent Zhang Qian as his special envoy to the Western Region, Kashgar submitted to the authorities of the Western Han Dynasty. During the first century, Kashgar was the supreme headquarters of Ban Chao, an imperial general who administered the Western Region. But at the end of the Sui Dynasty and at the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, Kashgar had to pay taxes and levies frequently to the Western Turkish Khanate. During the reign of the Tang Dynasty Emperor Taizong and afterwards, it was an important military stronghold of the Tang government. Kashgar was one of the four important towns in Anxi at the time; thus it was made the seat of the Shule Superintendent's Office. The Karakhanid Dynasty also established its capital in Kashgar. Before Genghis Khan went on his western expedition, Kashgar was the south capital of the Western Liao Regime established by Khitans. After Khan's western expedition was over, Kashgar became the fief of the crown prince of Chagatai. During the reign of the Qing Dynasty Emperor Qianlong, Kashgar became the seat of government of the Kashgar Councilor of the Qing government.